Luận án The universality and specificity of the new perceptions on socialism in the world today

1. The urgency of the thesis In 1848, Marxism marked an important turning point in the history of socialist ideology, bringing socialism from utopianism into science. Based on the concept of historical materialism, K. Marx and F. Engel made scientific predictions about the emergence of a new socio-economic form: socialist socio-economic form with the common rules that underpin the building of socialism, communism, and pointed out that the application of these universal rules must always be based on "real land", in accordance with the specific conditions of each country. After the Russian October Revolution in 1917, socialism moved from a theory to reality. Particularly, since World War II, socialism has become a world system. The socialist countries on the way of development apply the common rules that Marxism-Leninism has shown and achieve brilliant achievements in the fields of economics, politics, literature. chemical, social, scientific-technical, security-defense, etc. However, besides the achievements, the socialist countries also have limitations in the perception and building of socialism: the absolutization of the general law, belittlement of specific laws; considering the experience of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the construction of socialism as the fundamental basis for the entire international communist movement, etc. This led to the application of Soviet model dogmas to the socialist state, which degrades creativity and exploration of its own path of development. When the Soviet model does not fit a reality of crisis, the crisis affects the whole system.